India occupies the greater part of South Asia with roughly one-sixth of the world’s total population.
The Indian Himalayan Region is the section of the Himalayas within India, spanning 10 Indian states namely, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and hill regions of 2 states viz. Assam and West Bengal of Indian Republic. The Indian part of Himalayas covering an area about 5 lakh km2 (about 16.2% of country’s total geographical area) and forms the northern boundary of the country. The total population of IHR is 46,96,1740 with a population density of 181 per/sq.km
. and average sex ratio of 949.
Source: The population of Himalayan regions – by the numbers: Past, present and future - Michal Apollo
The region is responsible for providing water to a large part of the Indian subcontinent and contains various flora and fauna. The Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan Plateau. They prevent frigid, dry winds from blowing south into the subcontinent, which keeps South Asia much warmer than corresponding temperate regions in the other continents. Some of the highest mountains on earth are found in the region. Many rivers considered holy, like the Ganga and Yamuna flow from the Himalayas.
Rainfed agriculture continues to be the primary source of occupation and livelihood. There has been a shift towards market agriculture - pulses and vegetables are the major cash crops. Forest also forms an integral part of agricultural and animal husbandry practices. With the onset of the railways in the late 19th century in Western Himalayan states, large-scale destruction of forests began. After several rebellious movements in the early part of the 20th century, the government provided concessions for usufructs, such as fodder and fuelwood collection. At the same time, it allocated parts of forest land adjacent to villages under community arrangement.